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2014;15:411C421. branched and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), which results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)1, 2. When in excess, ROS can cause PF 670462 cellular damage, and trigger catabolic functions such as autophagy3-6. As autonomously replicating organelles, maintaining the balance between peroxisome biogenesis and degradation is critical for normal cellular homeostasis7-11, and if dysregulated, can give rise to diseases such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) 7, 11, 12, white matter disease9, 13 and Alzheimer’s disease8, 13. While the importance of maintaining peroxisome homeostasis is usually clear, mechanisms for recognition and removal of excessive or aberrant peroxisomes to prevent pathologies associated with too few or too many peroxisomes, are not well comprehended. Selective autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy) is usually a major pathway by which extra peroxisomes are eliminated14-18. During selective autophagy, adaptor proteins mediate target recognition, such as the ubiquitin-binding protein p62, which contains both an LC3-interacting region (LIR) that binds to LC3-associated with the nascent autophagosome, and a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain name that PF 670462 binds to monoubiquitinated lysine residues in the target19. p62 is known to be involved in pexophagy20, however, the peroxisomal targets recognized by p62, and mechanisms responsible for regulation of pexophagy have not been elucidated. Recently, we reported that ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) signals to the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in the cytoplasm to regulate autophagy in response to ROS3. ATM is usually activated by ROS via formation of a disulfide-cross-linked dimer21, and this kinase has been localized previously to the peroxisome22, 23. Importantly, Mouse monoclonal to EGFR. Protein kinases are enzymes that transfer a phosphate group from a phosphate donor onto an acceptor amino acid in a substrate protein. By this basic mechanism, protein kinases mediate most of the signal transduction in eukaryotic cells, regulating cellular metabolism, transcription, cell cycle progression, cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell movement, apoptosis, and differentiation. The protein kinase family is one of the largest families of proteins in eukaryotes, classified in 8 major groups based on sequence comparison of their tyrosine ,PTK) or serine/threonine ,STK) kinase catalytic domains. Epidermal Growth factor receptor ,EGFR) is the prototype member of the type 1 receptor tyrosine kinases. EGFR overexpression in tumors indicates poor prognosis and is observed in tumors of the head and neck, brain, bladder, stomach, breast, lung, endometrium, cervix, vulva, ovary, esophagus, stomach and in squamous cell carcinoma. we recently found that the TSC signaling node that regulates mTORC1 (a suppressor of autophagy) is also resident at the peroxisome in liver cells, the predominant cell type in the body for -oxidation of fatty acids24, 25. These data led us to hypothesize that ROS may serve as a rheostat for peroxisomal homeostasis, activating signaling molecules at the peroxisome to regulate pexophagy. RESULTS ATM is usually a peroxisome-localized kinase activated by ROS Endogenous ATM was detected in the nuclear fraction of cells (Fig. 1a), consistent with what is known about the function of this kinase as DNA damage response sensor26, 27. ATM was also found in the membrane and peroxisome compartments (Fig. 1a), consistent with previous reports that ATM was localized to this organelle22, 23. To determine whether peroxisomal ATM localized to the exterior (membrane) or interior (matrix) of this organelle, isolated peroxisomes were treated with proteinase K in the absence or presence of the membrane disrupting detergent Triton PF 670462 X-100. Like the peroxisome membrane protein PMP70, but not peroxisome matrix protein catalase which is usually resistant to degradation when peroxisome membranes are intact, ATM was rapidly degraded in both absence and presence of Triton X-100, indicating that ATM was associated with the outer (proteinase K accessible) surface of peroxisomes (Fig. 1b). Open in a separate window Physique 1 ATM kinase is usually localized at peroxisome and activated in response to ROS(a) Subcellular fractionation of HEK293 cells. Catalase and PMP70 were used as subcellular markers of the peroxisome (P). LDH, Lamin A/C and -integrin were used as markers for cytosolic (C), nuclear (N) and membrane (M) fractions, respectively. WCE, whole cell extract. (b) Proteinase K assay in the presence or absence.